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Understanding resolvers

In Drupal Commerce, a Resolver is a service that provides an "answer" to a potentially complex question. That question might be, "what is the price of this product?" Or, "what series of steps should a customer take to move his order through the checkout process?" This documentation page describes what Resolvers are and how their code is structured. However, before we get to the technical details, let's look at a few types of Resolvers, how they are used within Drupal Commerce, and why we use them.

Types of resolvers

Price resolvers

If you've set up products for your Drupal Commerce site, then you know that every product variation has exactly one price and that you can set that price through the administrative UI:

Edit product variation price

But what if your products need to have different prices in different situations? Perhaps you have one set of prices for wholesale customers, another for regular customers, and yet another for some sort of "preferred" customers. Or maybe you have multiple stores, each with their own set of prices. If you have complex pricing needs like these, then you will need to create a custom Price resolver.

See the Price resolvers documentation for additional information and example code.

Store resolvers

In Drupal Commerce, every order belongs to a specific store. A simple site may have only a single store, so all orders belong to that store. But if you have multiple stores, then Drupal Commerce needs a way to figure out which store to use for a particular cart or order. By default, it will always choose whichever store you've set as the Default. Here, the Default store has been set as the default store:

Default store selection

If you want to build a site with multiple stores, then you will need to create a custom StoreResolver. Your Store resolver will contain the logic that provides the answer to the question, "which store should I use?" For an example and more information, see the Resolve the current store documentation page.

CheckoutFlow resolvers

Drupal Commerce allows you to support multiple checkout forms so that you can have different checkout experiences for your customers based on what they are purchasing. The default Drupal Commerce installation includes a single Default checkout flow.

Now, if you create multiple checkout flows, how does Drupal know which one to use when a customer goes to checkout? When a customer's cart is first created, it is assigned a specific order type. By default, the Checkout flow set for the order type will be used. Here, the Default order type has been configured to use the Default Checkout flow:

Order type checkout flow configuration

You can override that setting by creating your own custom CheckoutFlow resolver. See the Links and resources section at the end of this documentation page for links to helpful articles on CheckoutFlow resolvers.

Other resolvers

In addition to Price, Store, and CheckoutFlow resolvers, Drupal Commerce also provides the following types of resolvers, which will be described in greater detail in other documentation sections:

  • Country
  • Locale
  • OrderType
  • TaxRate

Overall concept

For each type of Resolver, there's defined default functionality. That's the job of a Default resolver. Drupal Commerce provides these default Resolvers. But as described in each of the examples above, custom Resolvers can also be created. So it's possible to have multiple Price Resolvers or multiple Checkout flow Resolvers or multiples of other types of Resolvers, all active at the same time on a site. So how do you know which Resolver is going to be used? That's the job of Chain resolvers.

Each type of Resolver has a special Resolver, called a Chain resolver. You can think of a Chain resolver as the "boss" of all the other Resolvers of that type. When you want to know the Price of a product, for example, you go to the Chain price resolver to get the answer. And being an effective "boss", the Chain price resolver immediately delegates all the actual work to other Price resolvers. Chain resolvers never include the actual logic needed to provide the answer. Instead, they simply go to the other Resolvers of that type and ask them one-at-a-time for the "answer". Once they get an answer, they stop asking and return that value as the result.

So that's the overall concept. You have a question that might require complex business logic to answer. You ask a Chain resolver. That Resolver asks all the other Resolvers of that type, one-at-a-time, in a specific order, until they get an answer. And for every type of Resolver, there's a default Resolver that gets "asked" last and always provides an answer.

Structure of Resolvers

Service tags

All Resolvers are services, and Chain resolvers are a special type of service called a service collector. See Drupal 8 Documentation: Service Tags for more information. For each type of Resolver, a specific tag has been defined. For example, here the commerce_price.price_resolver tag has been defined for the Price chain resolver:

    class: Drupal\commerce_price\Resolver\ChainPriceResolver
      - { name: service_collector, call: addResolver, tag: commerce_price.price_resolver }

Every Price resolver needs to include that tag in its service definition. Here, the Default price resolver is defined:

    class: Drupal\commerce_price\Resolver\DefaultPriceResolver
      - { name: commerce_price.price_resolver, priority: -100 }

Here is the complete list of service tags for all Resolvers provided by Drupal Commerce.

Resolver Service tag
CheckoutFlow commerce_checkout.checkout_flow_resolver
Country commerce.country_resolver
Locale commerce.locale_resolver
OrderType commerce_order.order_type_resolver
Price commerce_price.price_resolver
Store commerce_store.store_resolver
TaxRate commerce_tax.tax_rate_resolver

Resolver interfaces

Every type of Resolver defines its own interface. Each Resolver interface defines a single method: resolve(). This is the method that returns the "answer" we're trying to find. Different types of Resolvers will require different parameters. For example, a Checkout flow resolver requires an Order entity; a Tax rate resolver requires a Tax zone entity, an Order item entity, and a Customer profile entity. Also, different types of resolvers will return different types of values with their resolve() methods. For example, a Country resolver returns a \Drupal\commerce\Country object; a Locale resolver returns a \Drupal\commerce\Locale object. If a particular Resolver cannot provide a result, it returns NULL. When that happens, the next Resolver in the chain will be called.

Chain resolvers implement interfaces that extend these Resolver-type interfaces and define two additional methods: - addResolver() takes a Resolver as its parameter and adds it to the array of Resolvers that will be used by the Chain resolver to determine the "answer" we're trying to find. - getResolvers() returns the array of all added Resolvers.

Chain resolvers

When you're writing a custom resolver, you don't really need to worry too much about Chain resolvers and their interfaces. They've been fully implemented for you, and you won't need to make any customizations. To understand how they work, let's look at some of the code for the Store Chain resolver:

  public function addResolver(StoreResolverInterface $resolver) {
    $this->resolvers[] = $resolver;

  public function resolve() {
    foreach ($this->resolvers as $resolver) {
      $result = $resolver->resolve();
      if ($result) {
        return $result;

When you create a custom Store resolver and define it with the commerce_store.store_resolver service tag, it gets added to the resolvers for the ChainStoreResolver with the addResolver() method. The Store resolvers are ordered from highest to lowest priority within the resolvers array. So then when the resolve() method gets called, if your custom Store resolver returns a non-NULL value, that value will be returned by the Chain resolver. If your custom Resolver does not return a value, the resolve() method for the next Resolver in the list will get called.

You may be wondering, "when does the resolve() method get called for the ChainStoreResolver"? There's a service class called CurrentStore that uses the ChainStoreResolver to determine the store that should be used. That's where the ChainStoreResolver's resolve() method gets called. Other types of Chain resolvers are similarly used in other places within Drupal Commerce.

Default resolvers

As mentioned above, every type of Resolver has a default Resolver, provided by Drupal Commerce. A default Resolver implements the Resolver interface for its type. Default Resolvers are defined with a priority of -100 so that they can be called last. All custom Resolvers should be given higher priority values.

Default Resolvers provide implementations for the resolve() method that should always return a non-NULL value. If a default resolver returns a NULL value, that means that it was impossible to find an "answer". When you're writing a custom resolver, looking at the Default resolver for the Resolver type is a good place to start. Your custom resolver will have the same structure as the Default resolver but provide its own implementation of the resolve() method.